Forgotten Analog Computers: History and a Revolutionary Future

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Analog computers, an intriguing facet of computation, utilize continuous physical phenomena—voltage, current, rotation, or pressure—to represent and manipulate data. They stand in contrast to digital computers, which rely on discrete values like binary digits (0s and 1s) for their calculations. This post examines a part of the extensive history of analog computing, tracing its origins back to ancient times, and speculates on its potential role in the era of artificial intelligence (AI).

The Origins of Analog Computers

The inception of analog computing can be traced to ancient civilizations, including the Balonians, Greeks, Chinese, and Indians. These civilizations utilized these devices for various purposes such as astronomical observations, navigation, timekeeping, and mathematical calculations. Some notable analog computers from antiquity include:

  • Abacus: Invented the Balonians around 2400 BC, the abacus employed beads on rods for arithmetic operations and found widespread use in Asia and Europe.
  • Astrolabe: A Greek invention from the 2nd century BC, the astrolabe measured celestial bodies’ positions, serving purposes in navigation, astrology, and timekeeping.
  • Antikythera Mechanism: An ancient marvel discovered in a Greek shipwreck dating back to the 1st century BC, this intricate device simulated the motion of celestial bodies, adhering to the geocentric model.
  • Water Clock: First conceived the Egyptians around 1500 BC and improved subsequent civilizations, the water clock measured time using water flow from a container.
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The Development of Modern Analog Computers

The journey of modern analog computing commenced in the 17th century with the invention of mechanical calculators capable of basic arithmetic operations. Key figures in this era include:

  • Blaise Pascal: In 1642, this French mathematician introduced the Pascaline, a mechanical calculator that added and subtracted numbers using a system of wheels.
  • Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: In 1673, the German philosopher and mathematician created the Stepped Reckoner, which could perform all four basic arithmetic operations through a stepped cylinder.
  • Charles Babbage: An English mathematician and engineer, Babbage designed the Difference Engine in 1822 and the Analytical Engine in 1837, pioneering complex calculations through punched cards, laying the foundation for modern computing.
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As the 19th and early 20th centuries unfolded, analog computing devices became increasingly sophisticated and found application in various scientific and engineering domains. Prominent inventions during this period included:

  • Harmonic Analyzer: Developed Albert Michelson and Simon Stratton in 1898, this device decomposed periodic functions into their harmonic components, used for analyzing electrical signals, sound waves, and astronomical data.
  • Differential Analyzer: Created Vannevar Bush and Harold Hazen at MIT in 1931, this device solved differential equations through mechanical integrators, proving valuable in physics, chemistry, biology, economics, and engineering.
  • Norden Bombsight: Developed Carl Norden in 1932, this device calculated the trajectory of bombs dropped from airplanes using gyroscopes, servomotors, and optical sights, a vital tool during World War II.
  • ENIAC: Built in 1946 John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania, this electronic numerical integrator and computer utilized vacuum tubes for arithmetic operations, impacting fields like ballistic calculations, weather prediction, nuclear simulations, and cryptography.

The Applications of Analog Computing

Throughout history, analog computers have served diverse purposes across various fields and industries, with some common applications being:

  • Simulation: Analog computers model physical systems or processes utilizing analogous quantities or components. For instance, electrical circuits simulate fluid dynamics or heat transfer, hydraulic systems mimic mechanical and control systems, and mechanical linkages replicate biological systems and geometric transformations.
  • Signal Processing: Analog computers manipulate signals, such as sound waves or radio waves, through filters, amplifiers, modulators, or demodulators. They enhance, compress, encode, decode, and generate audio or video signals, contributing to music and communication.
  • Data Analysis: Analog computers perform mathematical operations on data, including statistics, averages, trend analysis, equation solving, function optimization, and Fourier analysis.

The Challenges of Analog Computing

While analog computers offer advantages in terms of speed, power efficiency, and parallelism, they also confront limitations that hinder their broader adoption and development. Key challenges include:

  • Accuracy: Analog computers are susceptible to errors and noise due to the inherent variability and nonlinearity of physical phenomena and components. They have limited precision and resolution, making them unsuitable for applications demanding high accuracy and reliability.
  • Scalability: Analog computers face difficulties in scaling due to physical constraints and component complexity. Their limited memory and storage capacity further restrict their ability to handle large or dynamic data sets and problems.
  • Programmability: Analog computers are challenging to program and reprogram due to the lack of a universal language or interface for signals and parameters. Their functionality and flexibility are limited as they depend on specific phenomena and components, making adaptation to new or changing requirements challenging.
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The Prospects of Analog Computing

In an intriguing twist, analog computers may find renewed relevance in the age of artificial intelligence. AI endeavors to create machines capable of tasks typically requiring human intelligence, such as learning, reasoning, perception, decision-making, and natural language processing. Deep learning, a subset of AI, relies heavily on artificial neural networks (ANNs) composed of interconnected nodes.

Analog computing offers potential advantages in implementing ANNs for AI applications, including:

  • Speed: Analog computers can perform parallel computations faster than their digital counterparts, as they employ continuous signals instead of discrete values. This minimizes latency and the overhead arising from data conversion and digital component communication.
  • Energy Efficiency: Analog computers consume less power utilizing low-voltage signals instead of high-voltage switches, reducing energy consumption from data movement and storage between digital components.
  • Hardware Efficiency: Analog computers utilize fewer components employing physical phenomena, integrating memory and processing into one unit.

Recent developments in analog computing for AI include:

  • Mythic: A startup specializing in analog AI chips that use flash memory cells to store weights and perform matrix multiplication. Mythic claims its chips achieve 100 times higher performance and 10 times lower power consumption than digital AI chips.
  • Analog Devices: A semiconductor company producing analog AI chips that use electrical charge to store weights and perform dot product operations. Analog Devices asserts its chips deliver 50 times higher performance and 1000 times lower power consumption than digital AI chips.
  • MIT: A research institution developing analog AI circuits that utilize memristors to store weights and perform vector-matrix multiplication. MIT’s circuits are said to achieve 1000 times higher performance and 10 times lower power consumption than their digital counterparts.


The story of analog computing threads its way through the tapestry of history, science, engineering, and art. Its contributions to human knowledge and civilization are undeniable, yet it grapples with challenges in terms of accuracy, scalability, and programmability that limit its competition with digital computing. Nevertheless, the story of analog computing may not conclude here; it may be poised for a renaissance, offering advantages in speed, energy efficiency, and hardware efficiency in the AI era. As such, analog computing may not be relegated to the past; it might just be awaiting a new dawn.

By ReporterX

With a passion for technology and the future of humanity, I come before you with over 15 years exp in the field of IT, to share the advancements in our society, which backed me up with a journalistic degree. All about AI and it's impact on technology are the subjects, here for you to see. Stay tuned and buckle up on this journey with me.

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